Globalization and Fragmentation symbolize the concurrent and universal processes of the post-Cold War era that make them significant political and sociological issues. While some authors see these processes as the beginning of contemporary democracy and "true human history," others see them as the destruction of authentic human existence that leads to instability, risk, and even global anarchy. Thus, these two processes raise some very important theoretical as well as practical issues about the reemergence of cold war between the superpowers, uneven development, tariff barriers, protectionism, global inequality, democratization, populist and authoritarian regimes, cultural hegemony, and so on. While the processes of globalization are panning out in the world in diverse ways, there are tendencies of fragmentation at play at the same time in the form of multifarious conflicts going on in different parts of the world. The territorial conflicts of Russia-Ukraine, Palestine-Israel, Crimea-Russia-Ukraine, Armenia-Azerbaijan, Senkaku/Diaoyu islands (South China Sea), India-Pakistan, India-China, and so on have the potential to spill-over and snowball into the territories of other regions creating huge instabilities leading to fragmentation. To consider these issues of integration and fragmentation, there is a need to delve on the questions facing the current world. Some of these questions include: What do the processes of globalization and fragmentation signify? What do the processes of globalization and fragmentation mean for the developing countries? Is cold war reemerging between the USA and Russia? How has global politics changed in recent years in relation to the issues of power, security and justice? What is the balance between continuity and change in global politics? Are the developing countries benefitting from the process of globalization, or is there the “development of underdevelopment” in these countries? What is the direction that we are moving towards - a globalized world or a fragmented one?